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How Can Thyroid Disorders Affect Your Fertility?

Different Thyroid Disorders

The relationship between your thyroid health and fertility is very impactful when it comes to conception. Your thyroid gland regulates your body’s metabolism by producing hormones that can affect vital functions. It is important to know how this works and what actions to take in the process of trying to get pregnant. 

Thyroid disorders cause dysregulated functioning of the thyroid gland. This results in overproduction and underproduction of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). The overproduction of thyroid hormones is known as hyperthyroidism and the underproduction is hypothyroidism. The autoimmune condition, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, is the most common hypothyroid disorder and is predominant in women.


How can thyroid disorders affect your fertility?

The underproduction of hormones in your thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), interferes with and limits the ability for the release of an egg from your ovary. Thyroid disorders also affect your ability to carry a fetus to term. The mediation of progesterone levels is important when dealing with this. If unregulated, difficulty getting pregnant is common along with early miscarriages due to lack of implantation. 

Here are some signs that you may have low or malfunctioning progesterone:

  • Spotting between periods 
  • Shorter or longer cycles
  • abdominal pain
  • Low libido
  • Low blood sugar
  • Breasts that are frequently sore
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Headaches 


Hypothyroidism’s effect on fertility

Hypothyroidism, the underproduction of thyroid hormones, may no cause any symptoms in the early stages but can be detected through blood tests of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Many women, especially with ill-defined and subclinical hypothyroidism, go undiagnosed. 

Here are some signs that you may have Hypothyroidism:

  • Fatigue
  • Forgetfulness
  • Frequent or heavy cycles
  • Intolerance to cold
  • Weight gain
  • Dry skin and hair


Subclinical Hypothyroidism

Subclinical Hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough hormones and is an early, mild form of hypothyroidism. The label of subclinical is only because the serum level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is slightly above normal.



The overproduction of thyroid hormones is most commonly found as Graves’ disease. It is important to talk with your doctor about your history with Graves’ disease as the medication used for hyperthyroidism can cross the placenta. While hyperthyroidism is most common in women, it can also be found in men and affect fertility. 

Here are some signs that you may have Hyperthyroidism:

  • Disruption in the menstrual cycle
  • A reduction in sperm count
  • Early miscarriage


Talk to your doctor

It is important to talk with your doctor about difficulties getting pregnant or difficulties during the early stages of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders are seen in both men and women but are more commonly found in women.